China is now under a Communist government. Mao, ruler of the party was very strict to the people.
Many people weren’t trusted and were imprisoned. Schools were closed and religion was banned. The Red Guards (who worked for Mao) kept laws going and terrorised the population. China became an isolated country.
In 1976, Mao died, the laws had eased and China had more rights to trade with countries and to come in and out of China. The current leader Hu Jintao has improved the the educational opportunities and the poverty.
They introduced the one-child law to slow down the still-growing population. Hu Jintao feared that they would soon run out of food and essentials.
The only party in China is the Communist Party. People cannot vote for governments but can elect party members for parliament.