Term 3 Project


  • Make a list of the most important things you learnt.

During this project, I have gained heaps of facts and details-some relevant and some not so relevant. I learnt facts such as the ethical and unethical  business that’s going on behind the medical research, the many stakeholders of the researchers and the ways people than they are supposed to. I feel these facts and the many others were relevant to my project as it shows us the unprofessional behaviors of many people around the world.

  • What can you do now that you couldn’t do before?

The process of this project has helped me gain many research skills because this project has enabled us to go further with our skill to find useful information and to extend ourselves with our knowledge. I feel I have got better at finding the correct information for my questions and overall project. Doing this assignment has helped me extend my word-use to a more professional level has helped me learn more about the correct use of sentences.

  • What or who helped me?

The resources I used to help me in this project have improved my research skills really well. I used the Internet, along with deep conversations with my parents. I got the help from documentaries and the many, many books. They enabled me to go deeper into my research and study. They gave me certian skills to complete the unit of work. I believe that I gave my all into this project because it gave me the freedom to extend my research and skills.


    Medical Exploration

    Since the beginning of time, medical exploration has been taught, improved and understood by many people around the world. It may have been with leaves and stones to heal in the prehistoric times or might have been used today with modern resources and technology. Many people have tried to explore the world of medicine but only some have succeeded. They include the great Egyptians, who had found the treatments to over 200 diseases; Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, who discovered blood cells and observed bacteria; Leonardo Da Vinci, who actually wasn’t an explorer at all but rather an artist, though, he dissected the first corpse and drew the first anatomy drawing of the body; and Alexander Fleming, who accidentally discovered penicillin. These people and many more stunned the world and have now enabled us to go further with our research and knowledge.

    What motivates people to explore?
    In the past, there has been no major reason for exploration but rather many smaller reasons conjoint to create several important ones. They are, among others, fame, curiosity, commitment to find resources and improve the future, and passion.

    Fame is found differently by many different people. Some feel the need to stand out, so, they do anything to feel noticed. People want attention while others are following them around. Although, some just wish to voice their observations or discovery and make it a legacy in order to justify their existence and endeavors as worthwhile.

    Curiosity is defined as a vigorous effort toward a goal that wants to be achieved. It is a desire or thirst for knowledge, and curiosity is often a motivational prerequisite for exploratory actions. A Roman philosopher, Marcus Cicero thought curiosity as a “passion for learning”. It leads people to explore major areas of life and how we live.

    Resources to Improve the Future
    Many people explore to find resources for the future aimed at the improvement of the living status of people, or to help new generations or to, simply, help themselves. Human beings are the greatest consumers in nature so we are always driven to find resources for the future – unlike us, animals will take what and in the amounts necessary for their survival. Humans can never get enough. That is what makes us the biggest hunters for new resources. However, (unless it comes to human greed) exploration and discoveries of new resources have helped us become what we are today. And that is why man’s exploration of the surrounding world and nature will remain a continual process.

    Passion is simply defined as to achieve something lead by the love of it and the desire to explore it. The passion for medical exploration comes from one’s love towards people and one’s longing towards helping others and their welfare. This passion requires an individual to have a vision and determination that healthcare is the principle right of every human being.

    Who are the stakeholders in medical exploration and what benefits do they have?
    Medical research has been a progressing endeavor of medical explorers. And so, the medical research industry has become a big one, with many stakeholders within. In general, stakeholders are the parties who have interest and involvement in an action. Thus, the main stakeholders in the medical research industry are the pharmaceutical and chemical companies (for their interest in producing the drugs and medical products), the sponsors of medical research as well (for the money and finance they invest), the general public (that is, patients and consumers of the drugs and medical products), governments (for their interests in the management of the healthcare and welfare of their citizens), the academics (that is, the body of science for their interests in collecting the data aimed at ultimate advancement in science), and many, many more. However, the interests of the stakeholders in medical research are driven by different forces – for some parties it is only money and profits, while for others it may be their health concerns, or may be simply academic and discovery reasons. These various interests are often conflicting between each other and may lead to tensions, misconduct and unethical actions in the field of medical research.

    Is medical exploration always ethical and trustworthy?
    The field of medical explorations is meant to be defined by the utmost humane ideals and benevolent intentions, whereby the welfare of others should be placed before any personal benefits. As we know, the Hippocratic Oath is an oath universally taken by doctors and other healthcare professionals swearing to practice medicine ethically. This may be extended onto medical researchers as well.
    Unfortunately, medical exploration has not always been ethical. It is because medical exploration industries have many stakeholders who, for their interests, make political or financial influences. For example, medical exploration might be used to take advantage over others or it may treat others less fairly. Or, there can be found critics and claims about human trials in medical exploration which involved the use of disabled and imprisoned people as well as animals to test many different medicines which can potentially kill or harm them. Such unethical conduct brings about harming or abusing others rather then helping them, and is mostly financially driven. Therefore one’s personal interest, which is the earning of profit, is here put ahead of the welfare of others.
    Many unethical issues arise in the field of medical exploration of the modern world as medical industries that provide health care and insurance are becoming more and more privatized. It means that health care is more and more profit driven and, unfortunately, one’s health is the matter of how much money you have. This may affect and turn down the patients. For them, it comes to having a cure just as much as one can pay (obviously, for those who don’t have much money, they won’t get much of a cure), while for doctors this may mean taking part in unethical practice, ignorance or misconduct.
    The medical exploration industry, which is the focus of this project, is closely attached with and supported and funded by private health and medical schemes. So, if a broader medical and health system is undermined, then the field of medical research and exploration may also be expected to have its own vices. An example may be found in the pharmaceutical segment of the industry as they are on occasions considered as greedy and untrustworthy. Pharmaceutical and chemist companies may push the medical scientists to perform research and development in the areas which are profitable for industries rather than towards the needs of patients and people. They make drugs and may sell them at massive prices just to enlarge their own benefits. Sometimes the drugs become out of reach for those who need them.

    Is medical exploration conflicted by the exploration in alternative medicine disciplines?
    Alternative medicine is a way of healing through therapy, diet, uses of herbs, minerals, water etc. It is also used to heal through various cultural beliefs, and generally through the practices and methods that are not widely taught in medical schools. Many people use this way of healing. In fact, 80% of the world’s population uses herbs as a way of curing. This is where mainstream medicine (modern medicine) comes in – they tend to disagree with the principle idea of alternative approach that everything that comes from nature is healthy or healing.
    Therefore, due to the use of different methods to heal and their approaches to cure, the two often conflict each other. Because of the on-going argument and scientific disagreements between mainstream and alternative medicine, medical explorers on both sides may be involved in unethical and unprofessional actions and conducts, while medical research may become manipulated or misused. For example: only to win the argument or make profits for their industry, medical explorers may intentionally fabricate or misinterpret their findings, results or discoveries, or undermine entire exploration projects. The explorers tend to accuse the other side of lacking scientific studies or evidence of safety and efficacy of cures, or even blame each other to harm patients.

    During the period of this project, I have learnt great things like the benefits of medical exploration, the millions of successful discoveries that have occurred in the past and the knowledge that has know brought us to this day. Unfortunately, it’s not always that way. A great impact on me was the documentary Sicko by Michel Moore. Even if a movie focuses on America only, it gave me an idea to do further research beyond United States. And so, a broader exploration shows that it is globally influenced by unethical practices and attitudes. Present unethical behavior has made us forget the original idea of this field of exploration. Now, wealthy medical industries tend to convince the researchers that medical exploration is money and profit driven.

    Endeavors- an effort to do something
    Vigorous- something involving
    Prerequisite- something required as a prior condition
    Pharmaceutical- preparer for drugs
    Invest- to commit something in order to gain a financial return
    Utmost- of the highest degree
    Benevolent- suggestive of doing well
    Intentions- quality of being intense
    Ethical- proper way of doing something
    Conduct- behavior or attitude towards something
    Financially driven- something driven by money
    Privatized- opposite to public
    Schemes- a plan of action
    Undermine- something that is damaged as a whole
    Vices- a fault or defect
    Manipulated- using someone to do something for you
    Misused- that is of improper use
    Fabricate- to rewrite something wrongly to reach your own goal
    Misinterpret- misunderstanding of something
    Efficacy¬- the value of something
    Unethical- to do something wrong
    Practices- doing something practically

    By Edna D. 5/6B

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